替代词在比较结构中的用法

作者:Crystal发表时间:2016-04-12浏览:1518
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  在比较结构中,为了避免重复,常用替代词替代名词词组或它的中心词。可以这样用的替代词常用的且较难掌握的有one, ones,

  that和those

  I.替代词one和ones的用法

  1.one只能替代单数名词,one的复数形式ones只能替代复数名词。例如:

  My child doesn't like this book.Show her a more interesting one.

  2.替代词one或ones必须带有一个限定或修饰词,它们和所替代的名词中心词所指不一定是同一对象,这是替代词one或 ones在

  用法上的一个重要特征。例如:

  I don't like this book.I'd like a more interesting one.

  3.当替代词one或ones带有后置修饰语时,它们前面总有定冠词。例如:

  Our new cassette is more expensive than the one we had before.

  4.当替代词one或ones在形容词比较级、最高级以及某些限定词如this,that, which和序数词等之后,可以省略。例如:

  This book is much better than that(one).

  5.替代词one或ones通常不用在物主代词和名词所有格之后。如不可说my one(s),your one(s),Peter's one(s)等等。

  one或 ones也不能用在own之后。

  但是,如果有了形容词,one(s)可以和物主代词及名词所有格连用。如:

  My cheap camera seems to be just as good as John's expensive one.

  6.one作替代词时,在of前面不能用 the one来表示所属关系和类似概念。如不可说:

  *He put down his gun and picked up the one of Henry.

  该用一个所有格来表示 He picked up Henry's.

  7.当两个形容词表示对照的意思时,不能使用替代词 one。仅在其中一个形容词后加上名词即可。例如:

  Don't praise the younger child in the presence of the elder.

  8.替代词 one如果不带任何前置修饰语,即它的前面既没有限定词,又没有形容词时,便不是替代名词词组的中心词,而是替代

  整个名词词组。这时,one=a+单数名词。例如:

  A cake made of wheat costs less than one made of rice.(one =a cake)

  one的这种用法是泛指同类事物中的任何一个,相当一个不定冠词,因此它没有复数形式。要泛指复数事物,只能用some。例如:

  Here are a few apples.Would you like some(=some of them)?

  II.替代词that和those的用法:

  1.that和those通常用作指使代词,也可用作替代词。它们总是伴随着限定性的后置修饰语,分别等于the one和 the ones。

  例如:

  The houses of the rich are generally larger than those of the poor.

  2.that也可替代不可数名词,但是 the one则不能。例如:

  The resistance of a thicker wire is less than that of a thin one.

  以上两例中的that都不能换成the one。

  3.that作替代词,只能指物,不能指人。those作替代词,既可指物,也可指人。例如:

  The blonde girl I saw was older than the one you were dancing with.

  该句中的the one不能换成that。

  4.that用作替代词和它所替代的名词词组的中心词的“数”可以不一致。替代单数名词时,只替代“the +单数名词”,不可

  替代“a+单数名词”。例如:

  The song by Schubert is more tuneful than that by Britain.(that=the song。song为可数名词。)

  请注意,这里说的that只替代“the +单数名词”,不可替代“a+单数名词,系指that在句子中实际的作用,并非要求它在句子中所代表的前面出现的词组必须是“the +单数名词。例如:

  In those days they lived a life worse than that of a beast of burden.

  在该句中,前面出现的词组为a life,但that替代的却是the life。

  that作为替代词,它不能用于零关系分句(即没有关系代词的定语从句)之前。例如:

  The problem confronting us today is not dissimilar from that which the nation confronted in the 1930s.


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