这些学术用语,让你英语论文更专业

作者:Crystal发表时间:2016-07-01浏览:2285
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论文写作可能是英语精进的最难关之一。要掌握这项高级写作技能,需要有完美的英语的语法,精准的词汇和对主题深刻的理解。另外,论文写作还是一种专门的文体(正式和专业性),这一点对于英语非母语的作者来说可能比较难拿捏(甚至对英语母语的作者也一样很难!)。下文我们会列举50个最有用的论文写作固定搭配,附有定义和例子,全都取材于真实的学术论文。

  Accurate assessment - correct and precise evaluation of something or someone

  准确评价:对某事或某人进行正确而精准的评估

  - E.g. “Accurate assessment of head motion can be a useful tool in clinical studies”.

  例子:对头部运动的准确评价可以作为临床研究的有用手段。

  Address the issue - consider or deal with the matter at hand

  解决问题:考虑或者解决棘手的问题

  - E.g. “To help address this issue, we have extended our previous study and examined in detail the…”.

  例子:为了帮助解决问题,我们对之前的研究作了拓展,继续探究细节方面……

  Adversely affect - change in a negative way

  产生不利影响:作出不良改变

  - E.g. “A literature search was performed to determine whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adversely affect the healing of stress fractures”.

  例子:经过文献检索,我们发现抗炎药(NSAIDs)是否对应力性骨折产生不良影响。

  Become apparent - to be suddenly clear or obvious

  显性化:突然变得清晰或者明显

  - E.g. “They become apparent, however, when a new molecular species is introduced into the atmosphere...”.

  例子:当一种新的分子种类进入大气层,分子们就成显性。

  Brief overview - a non-detailed look at the subject as a whole

  概述:对事物进行笼统的描述。

  - E.g. “This paper offers a brief but broad overview of the field of individual of language learning”.

  例如:这篇论文对某一种独立的语言学习进行了概述。

  Broad range - of extensive scope

  广泛:涉及大面积领域

  - E.g. “The colour produced from this reaction is stable and increases in a proportional fashion over a broad range of increasing protein concentrations”.

  例如:反应所产生的颜色很稳定,成比例地且大量增加了蛋白质的浓度。

  Causal link - one thing being responsible for another

  因果联系:两件事有因果联系

  - E.g. “A causal link between high need for achievement and small business ownership is not found”.

  例如:我们并没有找到成功的高需求和小企业的拥有权之间的因果关系。

  Characteristic feature - a feature which distinguishes or defines something or someone

  本质特征:能够体现或者定义某个人或某件事情的特征

  - E.g. “The characteristic feature of the book is the effort to explain the mathematical origins of the most widely used statistical formulas in terms that persons with comparatively little mathematical training can easily follow”.

  例子:此书的本质特征旨在阐述最广泛应用的统计公式的数学起源,即便读者相对来说没有太多数学背景,也可以读懂此书。

  Deeply rooted - firmly implanted or established

  根深蒂固:深深地扎根或建立

  - E.g. “This book describes efforts to develop an approach to teaching and teacher education that is deeply rooted in the study of practice”.

  例子:此书力求开发一种教学和教师教育手段,此方法源于实践深处。

  Detailed analysis - an in-depth study

  细部分析:详细而深刻的研究

  - E.g. “The major difference between my book and others at this level is its coverage of the detailed analysis of experiments”.

  例子:在这个层面上,我的书和其他人的区别就在于对于实验的细部分析。

  Essential component - a vital part of something

  重要组成部分:某事物的重要部分

  - E.g. “We show here that these proteins are an essential component of the cell surface receptor”.

  例子:我们这里显示,这些蛋白质是细胞表面受体的重要组成部分。

  Establish a relationship - to prove or show a link between two things

  建立联系:证明二者之间有关系。

  - E.g. “Our aim was to establish the relationship between aortic stiffness and stroke death in hypertensive patients”.

  例子:我们的目标是证明主动脉硬化和中风死亡在高血压患者中存在联系。

  Existing research - previous academic work on the same subject

  现有研究:对同一问题先前做的研究。

  - E.g. “This working paper reviews the existing research evidence about the additional costs or deprivation that disabled people face”.

  例子:这篇研究审议了关于残疾人面临的额外开支和贫困状况的现有研究。

  First impression - initial thought on a subject, prior to any detailed analysis

  最初观点:在任何细节分析之前,对一个主题的最先的看法。

  - E.g. “Our first impression was strengthened by the fact that we were aware a condition existed in Povoa de Varzim”.

  例子:我们发现曾经出现在波瓦珍的病情,这印证了我们的最初观点。

  Frequently cited - often quoted or referred to in reference to something

  频频引用:多次被引用

  - E.g. “It should be recognized that other systems are frequently cited, particularly in engineering literature”.

  例子:我们应该认识到,其他的系统经常被引用,尤其在工程学得文献中。

  Fundamental principle - principle from which other principles can be derived

  基本原理:最最基础的原理,其他原理从其中得来。

  - E.g. “The authors argue for the restoration of beneficence to its place as the fundamental principle of medical ethics”.

  例子:作者论证指出,医学伦理的基本原理在于对善心的重建归位。

  General consensus - the majority opinion on a topic

  普遍认同:对此话题的普遍意见

  - E.g. “There is a general consensus that forward exchange rates have little, if any power as forecasts of future spot exchange rates”.

  例如:大家普遍认同,远期汇率对预测未来现汇汇率几乎没有影响。

  Gain insight - achieve a more profound understanding

  获得真知灼见:得到更深刻的理解

  - E.g. “Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks”.

  例如:通过此次对比,我们希望对他们进行这次实验有更深刻的认识。

  Hierarchical structure - a system where elements are subordinate to other elements

  阶层结构:在系统中一个要素与另一个要素呈现下属关系。

  - E.g. “After reviewing their theoretical approach, the authors present four kinds of hierarchical structure in music”.

  例如:在探讨理论手段后,作者提出了在音乐中有4种阶层结构。

  Highly controversial - tending to provoke fierce disagreement

  高度争议:可能会产生强烈的不认同

  - E.g. “A highly controversial issue in financial economies is whether stocks overreact”.

  例如:在金融经济中有一个具有高度争议的话题,就是股票是否反应过激。

  Immediately apparent - obvious and clear at that moment

  立即显现:当即变得明显、清晰

  - E.g. “The reasons for this are not immediately apparent and deserve further investigation”.

  例如:对此的理由没有立刻显现出来,需要进一步调查

  Increase the likelihood - to make more likely or plausible

  几率增加:变得更可能

  - E.g. “Numerous high school students engage in behaviours that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes”.

  例子:无数的高中学生都会做这些事情,从这四件事中他们死亡的几率会增加。

  Key element - a main or fundamental component

  重要元素:重要的基础的组成部分

  - E.g. “Provisional restorations represent a key element in the realization of extensive esthetic rehabilitations”.

  例子:暂时修复代表了大规模审美的修复的重要元素。

  Largely confined - focussed in a particular area

  主要限于:专注于某一领域

  - E.g. “The metabolic syndrome is largely confined to overweight and obese adults”.

  例如:代谢综合征主要限于肥胖和超重的成人之中。

  Literal interpretation - a non-metaphorical or figurative reading

  字面解释:没有隐喻或比喻含义的解释

  - E.g. “In Experiment 2, targets were phrases that could be given either an idiomatic or a literal interpretation”.

  例如:在实验2中,实验对象是词组,这些词组可以看作为习语,也可以只做字面含义解释。

  Major challenge - a large or fundamental problem

  主要困难:很大和根本的问题

  - E.g. “Keeping up with the population increase is a major challenge for urban areas”.

  例如:城市地区的主要问题在于很难跟上人口的增长。

  Markedly different - noticeably distinct

  显著不同:明显的不同

  - E.g. “The spectrum of pyridine coordinately bonded to the surface is markedly different from that of the pyridinium ion”.

  例如:吡啶的光谱与表面的协调度和吡啶离子有显著不同。

  Negative connotation - suggesting something bad or wrong

  负面暗示:暗指不好的意思

  - E.g. “The label placebo was avoided because of its negative connotation”.

  例子:“安慰剂”这个标牌并未被使用因为它有不好的含义。

  Newly emerging - novel or original concept first being introduced

  新产生的:新的或者原创的概念

  - E.g. “This is a book about a newly emerging area of research in instructional technology”.

  例子:这本书是关于在教育科技研究这个新兴领域的。

  Offer insight - present a deep or original analysis

  提出深刻的原创的分析

  - E.g. “This study reveals what those practices are and may offer insight for how they fit into future workplaces”.

  例子:这份研究指出这个方法到底是什么并且对在未来这些方法应用到工作领域作深刻的分析。

  Organisational structure - the way groups are arranged

  组织结构:组织是如何安排的

  - E.g. “This paper models the inner workings of relationship lending, the implications for bank organisational structure, and the effects of shocks to the economic environment on the availability of relationship credit to small businesses”.

  例子:这篇论文以如下几方面为模板:关系型贷款的内部运作,银行组织结构的含义,经济环境的影响冲击对于小型企业贷款关系的可得性的影响。

  Particular emphasis - stressing one aspect of something

  特别强调:强调事物的某一方面

  - E.g. “The first chapter, a review of some of the principal social surveys carried out in the last half-century or so, with particular emphasis on British experience, has been entirely rewritten”.

  例子:第一章审议了在上半个世纪流行的主要社会调查,特别强调了英国的经验,但这一章已经重新改写过了。

  Perceived importance - the opinion that something is particularly important or relevant

  感到某一观点特别重要和相关

  - E.g. “We examined whether employees' perceived importance of the training program would be one variable that mediates the relationship between training assignment and training motivation”.

  例如:我们研究过员工是否感觉培训项目的重要性,这是协调培训作用和培训动机的变量。

  Pioneering work - work which explores previously uncharted territory

  创举:史无前例,探索从未有人的领域

  - E.g. “Hans-Paul Schwefel has responded to rapidly growing interest in Evolutionary Computation, a field that originated, in part, with his pioneering work in the early 1970s”.

  例如:Has-Paul Schwefel回应了对进化计算这一热点领域,该领域有一部分是在二十世纪70年代发源的。

  Positive feature - something good

  积极特征:好的方面

  - E.g. “The great chemical diversity is a positive feature in that it indicates the likelihood that a variety of approaches can be made to prevention”.

  例如:伟大化学方面的多样性是一大积极特征,显示了各种防治手段可以人为的可能性。

  Qualitatively different - differences relating to quality as opposed to quantity

  质的不同:质量上的不同而非数量上的不同

  - E.g. “Current methods for generating qualitatively different plans are either based on simple randomisation of planning decisions”.

  例如:目前我们产生质的不同的计划是基于简单的计划决定的随机性

  Quantitative study - a study which focuses on aspects of quantity

  定量研究:一项专注于数量的研究

  - E.g. “Qualitative and quantitative studies were performed on pulmonary blood vessels in lung tissue obtained by biopsy, pneumonectomy, or autopsy”.

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