《新概念英语》可用于英文写作的八类金句

作者:东哥发表时间:2014-12-03浏览:2058
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  英文写作之初,首先要了解英、汉思维差异。洛基英语老师将其概括为,汉式写作的一般模式是:运用事例先做铺垫,通过层层推理和步步深入,最后呈现观点和主旨,这就是通常意义上的分总法;而欧美的人思维方式恰恰相反,作者一般会开宗明义,将观点置于文章起首部分,而后辅以事例佐证,这种方式被称为总分法,多见于议论文(argumentation)和说明文(exposition),这两种文体正是现行考试的主导类型。

  《新概念英语》收录的篇章基本沿用了这种模式(尤以三、四册突出)。试看三册第四课“The Double Life of Alfred Bloggs”。全文的主题句(topic sentence)出现在第一段中:“Such is human nature,that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white-collar workers.”(许多人情愿放弃较高的薪水以换取做白领工人的荣耀,这是人之本性。)而第二段是事例讲解,围绕主人公Alfred Bloggs的经历进一步阐明前述观点。再看三册47课“Too high a price ?”全文共分三段,每段的起首句即是本段的主题句。第一段:“Pollution is the price we pay for an over-populated and over-industrialized planet.”(污染就是我们为这个人口过密、过度工业化星球所付出的代价。)第二段:“Rubbish,however,is only part of the problem of polluting our planet.”(然而,垃圾只是我们这个星球污染问题的一个方面。)第三段:“However,there is an even more insidious kind of pollution that particularly affects urban areas and invades our daily lives, and that is noise.”(但是,还有一种更加有害的污染,尤其会影响城镇地区,干扰我们的日常生活,那就是噪音。)

  洛基英语老师依据多年的教学实践,从《新概念英语》中摘选了一些常用于英文写作的套用段落和句型,并加以分类处理,以期对英语爱好者和众多应试者有所裨益。

  开宗明义型

  1.Whether we finda joke funnyor not largely depends onwhere we have been brought up.(三册29课)

  译文:我们觉得一则笑话是否可笑,很大程度上取决于我们生长在何地。

  注:变色部分为可套用的经典句型框架。(下同)

  示例:Whether we find a plan feasible or not largely depends on whether it can bring profits.

  译文:我们觉得一个计划是否可行,很大程度上取决于它能否产生效益。

  {C}2.{C}The quiet life of the countryhas never appealed to me. (三册41课)

  译文:宁静的乡村的生活从来没有吸引过我。

  示例:The noisy,busy life of the city has never appealed to me.

  译文:喧闹、忙碌的城市生活从来没有吸引过我。

  3.Althoughtruthandjusticemay be the most powerful impulsestoshow moral courage,there are others. Compassionis one of them..(四册60课)

  译文:虽然勇于直言和富有正义感可能是表现道德勇气的最强的推动力,但还有其他因素。怜悯更是其中之一。

  示例:Although science and technology may be the most powerful impulses to push forward a country, there are others. The overall quality of its people is one of them.

  译文:虽然科技可能是推动一个国家进步的最大动力,但还有其他因素。国民的整体素质便是其中之一。

  点评:以上几例都是文章的起首句,即全文的观点句。作者几乎没有做任何过度和铺设,鲜明直白,直抒胸臆,与汉语表达方式的迂回委婉大相径庭。也应了这样一个道理:越简单,越深刻。望应试者多加注意。

  描述现状型

  1.With the advent ofthe new phase of technology we call automation,we have the promisebothofgreater leisure and even greater material and intellectual riches. (四册56课)

  译文:随着我们称之为自动化的新时代的到来,我们将拥有更多的闲余时光,享有更多的物质和精神财富。

  示例:With the advent of the 21stcentury, we have the promise of a wider choice of employment and therefore, more opportunities to make a fortune.

  译文:随着21世纪的到来,我们将拥有更多的就业和赚钱机会。

  2.Science and technology have come to pervade every aspect of our lives, and, as a reault,society

  is changing at a speed which is quite unprecedented.(四册56课)

  译文:科技已渗入我们生活的每一个方面,其结果是社会以前所未有的速度发生着变化。

  示例:Advertising has come to pervade every aspect of our lives, and, as a result, it is playing an increasingly more essential role in our purchases.

  译文:广告已渗入我们生活的每一个方面,其结果是它在我们的购买活动中起者越来越重要的作用。

  点评:在描述社会发展等话题时,例1是我们比较熟悉的模式,即汉语中的“随着……”

  例2则比较新颖,句型结构更加复杂,在写作中可交替使用,富于变化。

  启承转合型

  {C}1.The other side of thepictureis quite the opposite.(三册12课)

  译文:另一中想法恰恰相反。

  {C}2.Thisidyllic pastoral sceneis only part of the picture.(三册41课)

  译文:这种田园诗般的乡村美景只是一个侧面。

  点评:在议论文写作过程中,中国考生一般是将所有观点按序排列,若要转换话题时,多以but, however等词过渡,略显单薄和单调。而以上两例不仅可以延展文章的长度,也具有视觉缓冲的效果,使阅卷人或读者能继续保持较高的注意力和兴趣度。

  利弊说明型

  {C}1.The car has a curious ambivalence:it creates and then it destroys mobility. The car tempts people further out and then gives them the appalling problem of getting back.. It makes them believe they can spend Sunday in Brighton, but makes it impossible for them to return before, say, two in the morning.(四册46课)

  译文:汽车有着令人奇怪的自相矛盾:它创造了机动性,又亲自将其毁掉。汽车诱使人们更加远行,然后又使他们面临如何返回的巨大难题。它使人们相信能在布莱顿度过周末,却无法在凌晨两点返回。

  点评:利弊说明是议论文中频繁采用的写作手段,其方式一般分为两种:一种是将优点和缺点分别罗列,构成比较的两大整块,即A, A, A…, B, B, B…型(A为优点,B为缺点,下同);另一种则是将优点、缺点交叉罗列,即上例使用的A,B,A,B…型。相对而言,后者条理更加清晰,读者更易理解。

  说明阐述型

  {C}1.Two main techniques have been used for training elephants, which we may call respectively the tough and the gentle. The former method simply consists of setting an elephant to work and beating him until he does what is expected of him…The gentle method requires more patience in the early stages, but produces a cheerful, good-tempered elephant who will give many years of loyal service.(四册51课)

  译文:驯象主要有两种方法,可分别称为强硬法和温柔法。简而言之,前一种方法就是让象干活,并把它打到顺从为止……。温柔法在早期需要(驯象者)更大的耐心,但驯出的象心甘情愿,脾气好,会为主人忠心服务多年。

  点评:该例是说明文极为常见的类型,叙述时如果想使语言增加变化,可采用词汇替换等手段。另需注意:说明文宜多采用被动式,译成汉语时可考虑采用主动式。

  归纳总结型

  1.As is often pointed out, knowledge is atwo-edged weaponwhichcan be used equally for good or evil.(四册27课)

  译文:人们常说知识是一把双刃剑,它既能造福人类,也能祸害人类。

  示例:As is often pointed out, income-tax is a two-edged weapon which, on the one hand, narrows the gap between the haves and the have nots, and to some extent dampens the passion of the former on the other.

  译文:人们常说收入所得税是一把双刃剑。一方面它使得贫富差距缩小,而另一方面一定程度上挫伤了高收入者的积极性。

  {C}2.What characterizesalmost all Hollywood pictures is their inner emptiness. (四册12课)

  译文:几乎所有好莱坞影片的特点就是其内在的空洞性。

  示例:What characterizes almost all TV programs is their monotony.

  译文:几乎所有电视节目的特点就是单调乏味。

  示例:What characterizes almost all newspapers and magazines is the excess of commercials.

  译文:几乎所有报刊杂志的特点就是篇幅过多的商业广告。

  {C}3.Whateverthe source of noise,one thing is certain:silence, it seems, has become a golden memory. (三册47课)

  译文:无论何种噪声源,有一点是肯定的:宁静似乎已成为金色的回忆了。

  点评:议论文最常见的结尾方式是以so, therefore, thus, hence等标志词引导。而以上三例则另辟蹊径,表达方式千姿百态,却起到了殊途同归的功效。因此,充足的知识储备才能真正达到“下笔如有神”的境界。

  其他常用经典句型

  {C}一.表不满、批评

  1.be always doing sth, but…总在做……但是……

  例:Our vicar is always raising money for one cause or another, but he has never managed to get enough money to have the church clock repaired.(三册2课)

  译文:我们教区的牧师总在为各种各样的事筹集资金,但始终未能筹足资金把教堂的钟修好。

  示例:Almost all people are always talking about pollution, but they seldom do something beneficial on their part.

  译文:几乎所有的人都在谈论污染的问题,但很少从自身做点有益的事情。

  2.go to extremes to do something做……而走入极端。

  示例:Editors of newspapers and magazines often go to extremes to provide their readers with unimportant facts and statistics. (三册5课)

  译文:报刊杂志的编辑常常走极端,象读者提供一些无关紧要的事实和数字。

  示例:Some peaple often go to extremes to criticize the government.

  译文:有些人经常走极端而去批评政府。

  3.become illogical when it comes to something…涉及到……而变得不合情理。

  例:People become quite illogical when it comes to deciding what can be eaten and what can not be eaten. (三册23课)

  译文:在决定该吃什么不该吃什么的时候,人们往往变得不和情理。

  示例:Women become illogical when it comes to choosing the dress they will wear on some occasions.

  译文:在某些场合决定着装形式的时候,女性往往变得不合情理。

  {C}二.表称颂、赞美

  1.neverfail to fascinate somebody总令人着迷。(三册9课)

  示例:Cats never fail to fascinate human beings.

  译文:猫总令人着迷。

  示例:The Chinese culture never fails to fascinate westerners.

  译文:中国文化总令西方人着迷。

  2.exert a special fascination on somebody对……有一种特殊的魅力。(三册34课)

  示例:Antique shops exert a special fascination on a great many people.

  译文:古玩店对许多人来说有一种特殊的魅力。

  示例:The Chinese culture exerts a special fascination on westerners.

  译文:中国文化对西方人来说有一种特殊的魅力。

  3.cannot find words to praise…无法用言语表扬…… (三册49课)

  示例:Aunt Harriet could not find words to praise Bessie’s industriousness and efficiency.

  译文:哈丽特姑妈不知该用什么言辞来赞扬贝西的勤奋和麻利。

  示例:We cannot find words to praise the beauty of West Lake.

  译文:我们无法用言语来赞颂西湖之美。

  {C}4.Nothing is compared with… …….是无可比拟的

  例:Nothing is compared with the first cockcrow, the twittering of birds at dawn, the sight of the rising sun glinting on the trees and pastures.(三册41课)

  译文:凌晨雄鸡初鸣,黎明鸟儿欢唱,以及旭日东升,照耀在林间和牧场,此番美景无以伦比。

  示例:Nothing is compared with the green valleys, the murmuring streams and the sight of the setting sun.

  译文:那翠绿的山谷,潺潺的饿小溪,以及落日的美景都是无以伦比的。

  {C}5.No one can avoid…没有人能避免…… (三册26课)

  示例:No one can avoid being influenced by advertisements.

  译文:没有人能避免广告的影响。

  示例:No one can avoid being influenced by his family.

  译文:没有人能避免家庭的影响。

  结语

  相比美文浩如烟海的全套《〈新概念英语〉》而言,上述内容只是沧海一粟,挂一漏万实属必然。笔者只愿“他山之石,可以攻玉”。也愿所有英语学习者学有所成,终有所获。


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